Martini W. Z.


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Dose Responses of Ibuprofen In Vitro on Platelet Aggregation and Coagulation in Human and Pig Blood Samples.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

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Dose Responses of Ibuprofen In Vitro on Platelet Aggregation and Coagulation in Human and Pig Blood Samples.

Mil Med. 2016 May;181(5 Suppl):111-6

Authors: Martini WZ, Rodriguez CM, Deguzman R, Guerra JB, Martin AK, Pusateri AE, Cap AP, Dubick MA

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Ibuprofen is commonly used by warfighters in the deployed environment. This study investigated its dose effects on in vitro coagulation in human and pig blood.
METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 6 normal volunteers and 6 healthy pigs and processed to make platelet-adjusted samples (100 × 10(3)/μL, common transfusion trigger in trauma). Ibuprofen was added to the samples at concentrations of 0 μg/mL (control), the concentration from the highest recommended oral dose (163 μg/mL, 1×), and 2×, 4×, 8×, 10×, 12×, 16×, and 20×. Platelet aggregation by Chrono-Log aggregometer and coagulation by rotational thrombelastogram (Rotem) were assessed at 15 minutes after the addition of ibuprofen.
RESULTS: A robust inhibition of ibuprofen on arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was observed at all doses tested in human or pig blood. Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was inhibited starting at 1× in human blood and 4× in pig blood. Rotem measurements were similarly compromised in pig and human blood starting at 16×, except clot formation time was prolonged at 1× in human blood (all p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Ibuprofen inhibited platelet aggregation at recommended doses, and compromised coagulation at higher doses. Human blood was more sensitive to ibuprofen inhibition. Further effort is needed to investigate ibuprofen dose responses on coagulation in vivo.

PMID: 27168560 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications list

Fibrinogen concentrate administration inhibits endogenous fibrinogen synthesis in pigs after traumatic hemorrhage.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

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Fibrinogen concentrate administration inhibits endogenous fibrinogen synthesis in pigs after traumatic hemorrhage.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Oct;79(4):540-7; discussion 547-8

Authors: Martini WZ, Dubick MA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen plays a central role in coagulation and falls to critical levels early after trauma. Administration of fibrinogen concentrate (FC) to improve hemostasis after severe bleeding seems beneficial, but it is unclear whether its use introduces excessive fibrinogen with a potential risk of thrombosis. This study investigated changes of endogenous fibrinogen metabolism from FC administration following traumatic hemorrhage in pigs.
METHODS: Anesthetized, instrumented pigs were randomized into lactated Ringer's (LR) solution only and LR plus FC groups (n = 7 each). Femur fracture of each pig's left leg was followed by hemorrhage of 60% total blood volume and resuscitation with LR (3× bled volume, LR group) or LR plus FC at 250 mg/kg (LR-FC group). Afterward, a constant infusion of stable isotopes 1-C-phenylalanine (phe, 6 hours) and d5-phe (3 hours) was performed with hourly blood sampling and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify fibrinogen synthesis and breakdown rates, respectively. Blood gas and coagulation indices (thromboelastography) were measured on intermittent blood samples, and hemodynamics was continuously monitored. Animals were euthanized after the 6-hour isotope period.
RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure decreased by 50% after hemorrhage but improved after LR resuscitation in both groups. Hemorrhage and LR resuscitation reduced total protein, hematocrit, fibrinogen, and platelets to 50% of baseline values. Moreover, hemorrhage and resuscitation decreased fibrinogen concentration (207 ± 6 vs. 132 ± 7 mg/dL) and clot strength (72 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 2 mm) in both groups (p < 0.05). FC administration restored plasma fibrinogen concentrations and clot strength within 15 minutes, while no changes occurred in the LR group. Fibrinogen synthesis rates in the LR-FC group (1.3 ± 0.2 mg/kg/h) decreased versus the LR group (3.1 ± 0.5; p < 0.05), whereas fibrinogen breakdown rates were similar.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest an effective feedback mechanism that regulates host fibrinogen availability and thereby suggests that acute thrombosis from FC administration is an unlikely risk.

PMID: 26402526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list

Effect of Ibuprofen dose on platelet aggregation and coagulation in blood samples from pigs.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

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Effect of Ibuprofen dose on platelet aggregation and coagulation in blood samples from pigs.

Mil Med. 2015 Mar;180(3 Suppl):80-5

Authors: Martini WZ, Deguzman R, Rodriguez CM, Guerra J, Martini AK, Pusateri AE, Dubick MA

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Ibuprofen is commonly used by Soldiers in the deployed environment. This study investigated its dose-effects on in vitro coagulation.
METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 4 normal healthy pigs and were processed to make platelet-adjusted (100×10(3)/μL) blood samples. Ibuprofen was added to the samples at doses of 0 μg/mL (control), recommended oral dose (163 μg/mL, 1×), 2×, 4×, 8×, 10×, 12×, 16×, and 20×. Arachidonic acid or collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was assessed at 15 minutes after the addition of ibuprofen. Coagulation was assessed with measurements of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombelastography by Rotem.
RESULTS: A robust inhibition of ibuprofen on arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was observed at all doses tested. Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was inhibited to 71%±5% and 10%±5% of the control values at ibuprofen doses of 4× and 20×, respectively (both p<0.05). No changes were observed in PT at any dose, but aPTT was prolonged at dose of 16× and 20×. Rotem measurements of coagulation time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, and A10 were compromised at dose 16× and 20× (all p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Ibuprofen inhibited platelet aggregation at recommended doses, but did not compromise aPTT or coagulation profile until at 16 times the recommended doses and higher. Further effort is needed to clarify whether there are different dose-responses between human and pig blood samples in trauma situations.

PMID: 25747637 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications list

Are visceral proteins valid markers for nutritional status in the burn intensive care unit?

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

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Are visceral proteins valid markers for nutritional status in the burn intensive care unit?

J Burn Care Res. 2015 May-Jun;36(3):375-80

Authors: Shields BA, Pidcoke HF, Chung KK, Wade CE, Martini WZ, Renz EM, Wolf SE

Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether visceral protein levels increase under positive nitrogen balance during times of decrease in acute-phase reactant levels in patients with burn injury. This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional study approved by the local institutional review board. A total of 10 subjects between the ages of 18 and 72 with ≥ 20% total body surface area burn were enrolled over a 14-month period. Data were collected for five subjects (average age of 28 ± 8 years and total body surface area burn of 69 ± 15%) who met the inclusion criteria. Changes in visceral protein levels were examined along with nitrogen balance and acute-phase reactants when the subjects were on enteral nutrition, and the proteins were not examined during times of acute kidney injury. Descriptive statistics were performed, and linear regression was used to analyze the association of visceral proteins and nitrogen balance during times that acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing. The subjects received an average of 3044 ± 1613 kcal/day (39 ± 20 kcal/kg), meeting 72% of caloric goals and achieving positive nitrogen balance during 68% of the 40 weekly measurements, with 174 ± 85 g of protein intake per day (2.2 ± 1.1 g/kg). There was a weak relationship between nitrogen balance and changes in visceral protein levels during times that the acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing (P > .05). Visceral proteins were found to be poor markers of nutritional status. This study is unique because the subjects were able to achieve positive nitrogen balance despite severe burns.

PMID: 25055006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list

Acetaminophen and meloxicam inhibit platelet aggregation and coagulation in blood samples from humans.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

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Acetaminophen and meloxicam inhibit platelet aggregation and coagulation in blood samples from humans.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2014 Dec;25(8):831-7

Authors: Martini AK, Rodriguez CM, Cap AP, Martini WZ, Dubick MA

Abstract
Acetaminophen (Ace) and meloxicam (Mel) are the two types of analgesic and antipyretic medications. This study investigated the dose responses of acetaminophen and meloxicam on platelet aggregation and coagulation function in human blood samples. Blood samples were collected from six healthy humans and processed to make platelet-adjusted (100 × 10 cells/μl) blood samples. Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Q-PAP, 100 mg/ml) was added at the doses of 0 μg/ml (control), 214 μg/ml (the standard dose, 1 ×), 4 ×, 8 ×, 10 ×, 12 ×, 16 ×, and 20 ×. Similarly, meloxicam (Metacam, 5 mg/ml) was added at doses of 0 μg/ml (control), 2.85 μg/ml (the standard dose, 1 ×), 4 ×, 8 ×, 10 ×, 12 ×, 16 ×, and 20 ×. Fifteen minutes after the addition of acetaminophen and/or meloxicam, platelet aggregation was stimulated with collagen (2 μg/ml) or arachidonic acid (0.5 mmol/l) and assessed using a Chrono-Log 700 aggregometer. Coagulation function was assessed by prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and using Rotem thrombelastogram. A robust inhibition by acetaminophen and/or meloxicam was observed in arachidonic acid-stimulated platelet aggregation starting at 1 × dose. Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was inhibited by ACE starting at 1 × (78 ± 10% of control), and by meloxicam starting at 4 × (72 ± 5% of control, both P < 0.05). The inhibitions by acetaminophen and meloxicam combined were similar to those by acetaminophen or meloxicam. aPTT was prolonged by meloxicam starting at 4 ×. No changes were observed in PT or any of Rotem measurements by acetaminophen and/or meloxicam. Acetaminophen and meloxicam compromised platelet aggregation and aPTT. Further effort is warranted to characterize the effects of acetaminophen and meloxicam on bleeding in vivo.

PMID: 25004022 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list