Velik-Salchner C.


Syndicate content NCBI pubmed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(Velik-Salchner C) AND Innsbruck
Updated: 25 weeks 6 days ago

Predicting Transfusion Requirements During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Predicting Transfusion Requirements During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016 Jun;30(3):692-701

Authors: Tauber H, Streif W, Fritz J, Ott H, Weigel G, Loacker L, Heinz A, Velik-Salchner C

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have a well-known bleeding risk and the potential for experiencing possibly fatal thromboembolic complications. Risk factors and predictors of transfusion requirements during ECMO support remain uncertain. The authors hypothesized that compromised organ function immediately before ECMO support will influence transfusion requirements.
DESIGN: A prospective observational study.
SETTING: A tertiary, single-institutional university hospital.
PARTICIPANTS: The study included 40 adult patients requiring ECMO for intractable cardiac and respiratory failure between July 2010 and December 2012. Blood samples were taken before initiation of ECMO (baseline), after 24 and 48 hours on ECMO, and 24 hours after termination of ECMO.
INTERVENTIONS: None.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Independent of veno-arterial or veno-venous support, 26% of patients required≥2 packed red blood cells per day (PRBC/d) and 74% of patients required<2 PRBC/d during ECMO. Requirements of≥2 PRBC/d during ECMO support were associated with higher creatinine levels and lower prothrombin times (PT, %) at baseline and with impaired platelet function after 24 hours on ECMO. Platelet function, activated by thrombin receptor-activating peptide stimulation, decreased by 30% to 40% over time on ECMO. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed cut-off values for creatinine of 1.49 mg/dL (sensitivity 70%, specificity 70%; area under the curve [AUC] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.94), for PT of 48% (sensitivity 80%, specificity 59%; AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.87), and for thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP) 32 U (sensitivity 90%, specificity 68%; AUC 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.93).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that increased creatinine levels and lower PT before ECMO and secondary impaired platelet function significantly increased transfusion requirement.

PMID: 27321792 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications list

A Snapshot of Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

A Snapshot of Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2016 Jun 5;

Authors: Höfer J, Fries D, Solomon C, Velik-Salchner C, Ausserer J

Abstract
Cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often associated with important blood loss, allogeneic blood product usage, morbidity, and mortality. Coagulopathy during CPB is complex, and the current lack of uniformity for triggers and hemostatic agents has led to a wide variability in bleeding treatment. The aim of this review is to provide a simplified picture of the data available on patients' coagulation status at the end of CPB in order to provide relevant information for the development of tailored transfusion algorithms. A nonsystematic literature review was carried out to identify changes in coagulation parameters during CPB. Both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time increased during CPB, by a median of 33.3% and 17.9%, respectively. However, there was marked variability across the published studies, indicating these tests may be unreliable for guiding hemostatic therapy. Some thrombin generation (TG) parameters were affected, as indicated by a median increase in TG lag time of 55.0%, a decrease in TG peak of 17.5%, and only a slight decrease in endogenous thrombin potential of 7%. The most affected parameters were fibrinogen levels and platelet count/function. Both plasma fibrinogen concentration and FIBTEM maximum clot firmness decreased during CPB (median change of 36.4% and 33.3%, respectively) as did platelet count (44.5%) and platelet component (34.2%). This review provides initial information regarding changes in coagulation parameters during CPB but highlights the variability in the reported results. Further studies are warranted to guide physicians on the parameters most appropriate to guide hemostatic therapy.

PMID: 27268940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Categories: Publications list

Functional Recovery of a Human Neonatal Heart After Severe Myocardial Infarction.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Functional Recovery of a Human Neonatal Heart After Severe Myocardial Infarction.

Circ Res. 2016 Jan 22;118(2):216-21

Authors: Haubner BJ, Schneider J, Schweigmann U, Schuetz T, Dichtl W, Velik-Salchner C, Stein JI, Penninger JM

Abstract
RATIONALE: Cardiac remodeling and subsequent heart failure remain critical issues after myocardial infarction despite improved treatment and reperfusion strategies. Recently, cardiac regeneration has been demonstrated in fish and newborn mice after apex resection or cardiac infarctions. Two key issues remain to translate findings in model organisms to future therapies in humans: what is the mechanism and can cardiac regeneration indeed occur in newborn humans?
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether human neonatal hearts can functionally recover after myocardial infarction.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report the case of a newborn child having a severe myocardial infarction due to coronary artery occlusion. The child developed massive cardiac damage as defined by serum markers for cardiomyocyte cell death, electrocardiograms, echocardiography, and cardiac angiography. Remarkably, within weeks after the initial ischemic insult, we observed functional cardiac recovery, which translated into long-term normal heart function.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that, similar to neonatal rodents, newborn humans might have the intrinsic capacity to repair myocardial damage and completely recover cardiac function.

PMID: 26659640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list

Intracardiac echocardiography for guidance of transcatheter aortic valve implantation under monitored sedation: a solution to a dilemma?

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Intracardiac echocardiography for guidance of transcatheter aortic valve implantation under monitored sedation: a solution to a dilemma?

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Jan;17(1):1-8

Authors: Bartel T, Edris A, Velik-Salchner C, Müller S

Abstract
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been established as a valuable alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients deemed to have high or prohibitive perioperative risk. However, there are several technical constraints and procedural risks inherent to TAVI. These risks include annulus rupture, ventricular perforation, aortic dissection, coronary occlusion, and dislodgement or migration of the valve prosthesis to the aorta or the left ventricle (LV). Other complications may be related to inappropriate valve deployment and subsequent paravalvular leak. Most complications cannot be detected at an early stage without echocardiographic guidance. Although not addressed by current guidelines, some European centres have advocated a 'minimalist' approach with exclusively fluoroscopic and angiographic guidance. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), including real-time three-dimensional (RT-3D) imaging, has been established as a standard approach for peri-interventional guidance of TAVI. However, TEE monitoring almost always necessitates general anaesthesia and endotracheal intubation. A potential alternative to TEE is intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) that may provide a solution to a common dilemma: the most important advantage of ICE being the compatibility with monitored anaesthesia care without endotracheal intubation. Other advantages of ICE include uninterrupted monitoring, no fluoroscopic interference, and precise Doppler-based assessment of pulmonary artery pressures. Limitations of ICE include the need for additional venous access, the learning curve associated with a new device, and potentially increased cost.

PMID: 26497737 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications list

Intracardiac Doppler Echocardiography for Monitoring of Pulmonary Artery Pressures in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Intracardiac Doppler Echocardiography for Monitoring of Pulmonary Artery Pressures in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2016 Jan;29(1):83-91

Authors: Müller S, Velik-Salchner C, Edlinger M, Bonaros N, Heinz A, Feuchtner G, Bartel T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled pulmonary hypertension may cause worse outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), while hemodynamic monitoring is desirable for risk control. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) readings obtained by intracardiac Doppler echocardiography were evaluated.
METHODS: In 114 patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis and median Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores of 10.5% (interquartile range, 7.7%-15.0%), transfemoral and transapical TAVR was guided by intracardiac Doppler echocardiography. The continuous-wave Doppler beam interrogated the jet of tricuspid regurgitation from the "home view" position. Systolic PAP (PAPs) was estimated as the sum of the pressure gradient derived from the maximum transtricuspid regurgitation jet velocity and the central venous pressure. Mean PAP (PAPm) was calculated by the mean gradient method (1) and the Chemla formula (2). Measurements were obtained immediately before and after TAVR.
RESULTS: Pre- and postinterventional readings showed marginal pressure underestimation in comparison with measurements derived from right-heart catheterization: PAPs, -2.7 (95% CI, -3.3 to 2.1) and -1.4 (95% CI, -1.9 to -0.9); PAPm by the mean gradient method, -1.9 (95% CI, -2.2 to -1.6) and -0.1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 0.2). Agreement (95% limits) for PAPs was -8.6 to 3.2 and -6.8 to 4.0; agreement for PAPm by the mean gradient method was -5.4 to 1.6 and -3.4 to 3.2. The repeatability coefficient (95% limits of agreement) for PAPs was excellent: 3.4 (-4.2 to 2.5) and 5.5 (-5.3 to 5.8); repeatability for PAPm was higher by the mean gradient method than by the Chemla method. In ≥ 85% of patients with pulmonary hypertension, PAPm improved after valve deployment.
CONCLUSIONS: Intracardiac Doppler echocardiography-derived monitoring of PAP by the mean gradient method is accurate and well applicable to high-risk TAVR candidates for intraprocedural risk control.

PMID: 26494418 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications list

[Perioperative transesophageal echocardiography in non-cardiac surgery. Update].

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

[Perioperative transesophageal echocardiography in non-cardiac surgery. Update].

Anaesthesist. 2015 Sep;64(9):669-82

Authors: Wally D, Velik-Salchner C

Abstract
AIM: The aim of this article is to impart knowledge concerning focused transesophageal echocardiographic examination (TEE) for non-cardiac surgery which is an essential part of perioperative monitoring. It allows a rapid echocardiographic examination without interference with the surgical field or under limited transthoracic examination conditions. New recommendations for a comprehensive perioperative TEE examination with expanded standard views and the recently published consensus statement for a shortened baseline examination were crucial for this study.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The background is the peer-reviewed literature from PubMed.
RESULTS: Apart from cardiac surgery TEE has two main applications: firstly, the evaluation of patients developing acute life-threatening hemodynamic instability in the operating room, in the emergency room or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Secondly, TEE is used as planned intraoperative monitoring when severe hemodynamic, pulmonary or neurological complications are expected because of the type of surgery or due to the cardiopulmonary medical history of the patient. In 2013 a total of 11 relevant standard views were defined for the basic perioperative TEE examination in non-cardiac surgery. These 11 views should be performed for each patient. Appropriate extension to a comprehensive examination may be necessary if complex pathology is obvious.
DISCUSSION: Even in non-cardiac surgery TEE is an important tool allowing clarification of a life-threatening perioperative hemodynamic instability within a few minutes. Furthermore, the hemodynamic management of high-risk patients can be facilitated. Appropriate qualification and continuous training are necessary in order to assure the competence of the examiner.

PMID: 26310923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list

Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy induces early hemodynamic and stress hormone changes.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy induces early hemodynamic and stress hormone changes.

J Vasc Surg. 2015 Jul;62(1):57-67

Authors: Hoefer J, Pierer E, Rantner B, Stadlbauer KH, Fraedrich G, Fritz J, Kleinsasser A, Velik-Salchner C

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Locoregional anesthesia is an effective method for evaluating cerebral function during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Landmark-guided regional anesthesia (RA) is currently used for CEA and can provoke substantial perioperative hypertension. Ultrasound-guided RA (US-RA) is a new method for performing RA in CEA; however, the effect on sympathetic activity and blood pressure is uncertain. This study assessed early sympathetic activity during CEA in US-RA compared with general anesthesia (GA).
METHODS: Patients were prospectively randomized to receive US-RA (n = 32) or GA (n = 28) for CEA. The primary end point was the change in systolic arterial blood pressure after induction of anesthesia (just before starting surgery) comparing US-RA with GA. We also recorded heart rate and analyzed concentrations of plasma blood hormones, including cortisol, metanephrine, and normetanephrine at five different times. Creatinine kinase, troponin I, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were analyzed to detect potential changes in cardiac biomarkers during the procedure.
RESULTS: Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean ± standard deviation) increased significantly in US-RA patients compared with GA patients even before surgery was initiated (180 ± 26 mm Hg vs 109 ± 24 mm Hg; P < .001), then remained elevated during the entire surgery and returned to baseline values 1 hour after admission to the postoperative anesthesia care unit. Heart rate (US-RA: 78 ± 16 beats/min, GA: 52 ± 12 beats/min; P < .001) and cortisol levels (US-RA: 155 ± 97 μg/L, GA: 99 ± 43 μg/L; P = .006) were also significantly higher in the US-RA group after induction of anesthesia. Other values did not differ.
CONCLUSIONS: The US-RA technique for CEA induces temporary intraoperative hypertension and an increase in stress hormone levels. Nevertheless, US-RA is a feasible, effective, and safe form of locoregional for CEA that enables targeted placement of low volumes of local anesthesia under direct visualization.

PMID: 25953020 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list

[Near-infrared spectroscopy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical circulatory support: From the operating room to the intensive care unit].

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

[Near-infrared spectroscopy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical circulatory support: From the operating room to the intensive care unit].

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed. 2015 Nov;110(8):621-30

Authors: Wally D, Velik-Salchner C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows continuous measurement of cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2). It is a weighted saturation value derived from approximately 70-75 % venous, 20-25 % arterial and 2.5-5 % capillary blood. In contrast to pulse oximetry, NIRS is independent of pulsatile flow. Therefore, it is also applicable during extracorporeal circulation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and hypothermia.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work is to describe the application of cerebral and somatic NIRS in cardiology and cardiac surgery patients in the operation room, during and after CPR, and during the intensive care unit stay.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article is based on peer-reviewed literature from PubMed.
RESULTS: Interventions based on decline of cerebral NIRS values during on-pump cardiac surgery can reduce major organ morbidity and mortality; however, the appearance of a postoperative cognitive dysfunction is scarcely influenced. Persisting of low cerebral oximetry values during resuscitation is a marker for not achieving return of spontaneous circulation under normothermia. NIRS is an additional method for monitoring that can be used during extracorporeal circulation.
CONCLUSION: NIRS is a rapidly available, user-friendly, and noninvasive method for continuous measurement of rSO2. NIRS provides additional information about tissue oxygenation especially during resuscitation and extracorporeal circulatory assist support. Recommendations concerning the use of NIRS for standard monitoring during resuscitation and mechanical circulatory support are not currently available. Further studies are required to show if use of NIRS can reduce pulse control and hands-off times during resuscitation and if use of NIRS can improve outcome after CPR and mechanical circulatory support.

PMID: 25917180 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications list

Computed advisory systems in daily practice for predicting concentrations and effects of combined anesthetics: a new field in anesthesia?

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Computed advisory systems in daily practice for predicting concentrations and effects of combined anesthetics: a new field in anesthesia?

Minerva Anestesiol. 2015 Nov;81(11):1151-2

Authors: Velik-Salchner C

PMID: 25881733 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications list

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation induces short-term loss of high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor multimers.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation induces short-term loss of high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor multimers.

Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr;120(4):730-6

Authors: Tauber H, Ott H, Streif W, Weigel G, Loacker L, Fritz J, Heinz A, Velik-Salchner C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: High-molecular-weight (HMW) von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers are crucial for primary hemostasis. Increased shear stress from ventricular assist devices can provoke premature degradation of HMW vWF multimers. Whether similar loss of vWF multimers occurs during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not clear.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in a clinical cohort of patients who required ECMO for intractable cardiac and/or respiratory failure. The primary end point was the quantity and quality of HMW vWF multimer bands before, during, and after ECMO support. To investigate further changes in primary hemostasis, we also measured vWF antigen activity (vWF:Ag), vWF ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo), and factor VIII in 38 patients who required ECMO support before initiation of ECMO (baseline), after 24 and 48 hours on ECMO, and 24 hours after termination of ECMO therapy.
RESULTS: Compared with baseline, vWF:Ag and vWF:RCo decreased after 24 hours of ECMO (mean ± SD, vWF:Ag, 307% ± 152% to 261% ± 138%, P = 0.002; vWF:RCo 282% ± 145% to 157% ± 103%, P < 0.0001) and remained lower during ongoing support (vWF:Ag 265% ± 128%, P = 0.025; vWF:RCo 163% ± 94%, P < 0.0001). After termination of ECMO, vWF:Ag was greater than baseline (359% ± 131%, P = 0.004) and vWF:RCo was similar to baseline levels (338% ± 142%, P = 0.046). Compared with baseline, the calculated vWF:RCo/vWF:Ag ratio decreased after 24 hours on support (0.96 ± 0.23 to 0.61 ± 0.17, P ≤ 0.0001) and remained lower during 48 hours on ECMO (0.63 ± 0.18, P ≤ 0.0001). After termination of ECMO support (0.94 ± 0.19, P = 0.437), values rapidly returned to baseline. The number of HMW vWF multimers (n) decreased from baseline after 24 hours on ECMO (21 ± 1.4 to 14 ± 1.8, P ≤ 0.0001) and after 48 hours on ECMO (15 ± 2.1, P ≤ 0.0001). Twenty-four hours after termination of ECMO support, HMW vWF multimeric pattern had returned to baseline values (21 ± 1.8, P = 0.551).
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of HMW vWF multimer bands occurred in patients undergoing ECMO support and resolved after the termination of ECMO. Although not detectable with coagulation screening tests, a vWF:RCo/vWF:Ag ratio <0.7 during ECMO was highly indicative for loss of HMW vWF multimers. Our findings may at least in part explain increased bleeding tendency during ECMO therapy. Administration of vWF concentrates may support restoration of primary hemostasis in patients with relevant bleeding during ECMO support.

PMID: 25565317 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list

Results of rotational thromboelastometry, coagulation activation markers and thrombin generation assays in orthopedic patients during thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban and enoxaparin: a prospective cohort study.

Wed, 20/07/2016 - 4:08am

Related Articles

Results of rotational thromboelastometry, coagulation activation markers and thrombin generation assays in orthopedic patients during thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban and enoxaparin: a prospective cohort study.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2015 Mar;26(2):136-44

Authors: Oswald E, Velik-Salchner C, Innerhofer P, Tauber H, Auckenthaler T, Ulmer H, Streif W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A prospective observational study was conducted in two clinical cohorts of patients to compare the effect of enoxaparin and rivaroxaban on rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), coagulation activation markers and thrombin generation.
METHODS: A total of 188 consecutive patients scheduled for major orthopedic surgery receiving 40-mg enoxaparin subcutaneously or 10-mg rivaroxaban orally were evaluated. Blood samples were taken before induction of anesthesia and on day 4 after surgery [postoperative day 4 (pod 4)]. The extrinsically (EXTEM) and the intrinsically (INTEM) activated ROTEM assay, antithrombin, prothrombin fragments (F1 + 2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and D-dimers were measured, and the thrombodynamic ratio (TDR) was calculated. Thrombin generation was determined using calibrated automated thrombography. To compare the groups, changes (Δ) in baseline versus pod 4 were calculated.
RESULTS: EXTEM clotting time (CT) increased more with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin; values above the reference range were observed (median ΔEXTEM-CT 15 vs. 5 s, P ≤ 0.0001). The increase in INTEM-CT (values remained within the normal ranges) was slight with enoxaparin and significant with rivaroxaban; ΔINTEM-CT was comparable. EXTEM-TDR, unchanged with rivaroxaban, increased significantly with enoxaparin, whereas ΔINTEM-TDR was comparable. ΔAT, ΔF1 + 2 and ΔTAT were significantly lower in the rivaroxaban group. Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), unchanged with rivaroxaban, decreased significantly with enoxaparin; the maximal rising slope (mean velocity rate index) decreased more with rivaroxaban.
CONCLUSION: Data show that prolonged CT in the extrinsic ROTEM and thrombin generation assays reflecting initiation and propagation of thrombin may be useful for detecting treatment with rivaroxaban. The significance of observed differences in markers of coagulation needs to be investigated further.

PMID: 25396759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications list